What is the issue ?
- Mumbai's Victorian and Art Deco ensembles were given the green light by the International Council for Monuments and Sites, an advisory body to the UNSECO, thus securing India its 37th World Heritage site, and Maharashtra its fifth.
About the sites :
- The buildings around the Fort, Churchgate and Marine Drive areas of the city, with notable structures such as the Bombay High Court, Elphinstone College, the National Gallery of Modern Art and CSMT, form a part of the collection of Victorian, NeoClassical and IndoSaracenic architecture in the city.
- Residential buildings along Oval Maidan and around the Cricket Club of India, and the first row of buildings along Marine Drive, as well as the Regal and Eros cinema theatres, are part of the Art Deco cluster.
- Mumbai’s Victorian buildings are amongst the finest and most cohesive 19th century Victorian architecture in the world, and the city’s Art Deco buildings of the 20th century make up the second largest homogenous collection in the world.
What are World Heritage Sites ?
- The sites are designated as having “outstanding universal value” under the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.
- This document was adopted by UNESCO in 1972 and formally took effect in 1975 after having been ratified by 20 countries.
- It provides a framework for international cooperation in preserving and protecting cultural treasures and natural areas throughout the world.
Types of World Heritage Sites
- There are three types of sites: cultural, natural, and mixed.
Cultural heritage sites
- Include hundreds of historic buildings and town sites, important archaeological sites, and works of monumental sculpture or painting.
Natural heritage sites
Are restricted to those natural areas that
- furnish outstanding examples of Earth’srecord of life or its geologic processes,
- provide excellent examples of ongoing ecological and biological evolutionary processes,
- contain natural phenomena that are rare, unique, superlative, or of outstanding beauty, or
- furnish habitats for rare or endangered animals or plants or are sites of exceptional biodiversity.
Mixed heritage sites
- Contain elements of both natural and cultural significance.